Miroslav Volf on the eschatological significance of human work

I was recently re-reading portions of Miroslav Volf’s Work in the Spirit: Toward a Theology of Work, and I was struck again with his vision for relating human work in creation with the eschatological new creation. Volf devotes considerable attention to rejecting the idea that there will be an eventual “annihilation” of this world following by an entirely new creation. Instead, he contends that a more faithful interpretation of the biblical narrative would be to affirm that this present creation will be renewed and transformed in the eschaton. Thus, the new creation flows from the current creation, rather than being entirely discontinuous with it.

One of his concerns with the annihilation/new creation framework is that it threatens to rob human work of its intrinsic significance. On that framework, any work that we perform with respect to this creation has only an instrumental value insofar as it improves me as an individual or the believing community as a whole. The effect on creation itself has no lasting significance.

In a renewal/transformation framework, though, he contends that we can understand human work has having eschatological significance in that it participates in the transformatio mundi.

The picture changes radically with the assumption that the world will end not in apocalyptic destruction but in eschatological transformation. Then the results of the cumulative work of human beings have intrinsic value and gain ultimate significance, for they are related to the eschatological new creation, not only indirectly through the faith and service they enable or sanctification they further, but also directly: the noble products of human ingenuity….will form the ‘building materials’ from which (after they are transfigured) ‘the glorified world’ will be made. (91)

Thus, human work has eschatological significance even beyond its instrumental effect on the person performing the work. Indeed, Volf argues that this gives us grounds for affirming that even the work of non-believers might transformatively carried over into the new creation. Any “noble result” of human endeavor may be judged by God as having value for new creation.

Volf wants to be careful, though, to make sure that we don’t begin to think that we are actually the ones who bring the new creation into being. For Volf, new creation is clearly a work of God, but in a way that retains the significance of human work.

Through the Spirit, God is already working in history, using human actions to create provisional states of affairs that anticipate the new creation in a real way. These historical anticipations are, however, as far from the consummation of the new creation as earth is from heaven. The consummation is a work of God alone. But since this solitary divine work does not obliterate but transforms the historical anticipations…one can say, without being involved in a contradiction, that human work is an aspect of active anticipation of the exclusively divine transformatio mundi. (100)

Drawing largely on the resources of eschatology and pneumatology, Volf presents a compelling vision for the significance of human work and how it contributes to the transformatio mundi, while retaining a clear sense of the divine prerogative in new creation.

To that extent, it reminded me of the semi-apocryphal quote attributed to Martin Luther (at least I can’t find where he said it): “Even if I knew that tomorrow the world would go to pieces, I would still plant my apple tree.” Given Volf’s framework, this becomes more than rhetorical flourish. Planting an apple tree just might have eschatological significance in its own right. Johnny Appleseed would be so proud.

About Marc Cortez

Theology Prof and Dean at Western Seminary, husband, father, & blogger, who loves theology, church history, ministry, pop culture, books, and life in general.

Posted on August 28, 2010, in Anthropology and tagged , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 3 Comments.

  1. I certainly have not read this work, but it sounds inteesting. One concern, replying at least to how his work is rpresented here, is that he seems to be formulating theology based upon how he thinks things should be rather than how scripture represents them.

    quote “One of his concerns with the annihilation/new creation framework is that it threatens to rob human work of its intrinsic significance. ”

    Is he truly trying to better understand what scripture says? Or is he attempting to prove what he wants it to say? I think I will add this to my ever growing “to read” list so I can try & find out for myself.

    • Good question. I tried to get at that a little by referring to his understanding of the “biblical narrative,” but I didn’t take the time to unpack exactly what that means in this post. He does spend quite a bit of time explaining why he thinks that liberation/renewal is a better way of understanding the biblical narrative than annihilation/recreation. He focuses particularly on the goodness of creation and its role in God’s plan from the beginning, the analogy with human death/resurrection (i.e. there is continuity between who we are now and who we will be in our resurrected state), and the liberation theme in Romans 8:21. He argues that all of these press toward a liberation/renewal understanding and that it’s better to see the destruction language occasionally used in the NT as apocalyptic imagery denoting sudden and radical transformation.

      Having said that, though, the book’s primary focus is on developing a theology of work. So, although he does provide some warrant for reading the Bible in this way, his purpose is not to provide a full account and defense. Instead, he gives enough for you to see where he’s getting these ideas and why he thinks they are important, and then he moves on to show their significance for understanding human work.

  1. Pingback: Week in Review: 09.03.10 | Near Emmaus

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